JME¶
JME expressions are used by students to enter answers to algebraic questions, and by question authors to define variables. JME syntax is similar to what you’d type on a calculator.
Variable names¶
Variable names are caseinsensitive, so y
represents the same thing as Y
.
The first character of a variable name must be an alphabet letter; after that, any combination of letters, numbers and underscroes is allowed, with any number of '
on the end.
 Examples:
x
x_1
time_between_trials
var1
row1val2
y''
e
, i
and pi
are reserved names representing mathematical constants. They are rewritten by the interpreter to their respective numerical values before evaluation.
This screencast describes which variable names are valid, and gives some advice on how you should pick names:
Variable name annotations¶
Names can be given annotations to change how they are displayed. The following annotations are builtin:
verb
– does nothing, but names likei
,pi
ande
are not interpreted as the famous mathematical constants.op
– denote the name as the name of an operator — wraps the name in the LaTeX operatorname command when displayedv
orvector
– denote the name as representing a vector — the name is displayed in boldfaceunit
– denote the name as representing a unit vector — places a hat above the name when displayeddot
– places a dot above the name when displayed, for example when representing a derivativem
ormatrix
– denote the name as representing a matrix — displayed using a nonitalic font
Any other annotation is taken to be a LaTeX command. For example, a name vec:x
is rendered in LaTeX as \vec{x}
, which places an arrow above the name.
You can apply multiple annotations to a single variable.
For example, v:dot:x
produces a bold x with a dot on top: \(\boldsymbol{\dot{x}}\).
Data types¶

number
¶ Numbers include integers, real numbers and complex numbers. There is only one data type for all numbers.
i
,e
,infinity
andpi
are reserved keywords for the imaginary unit, the base of the natural logarithm, ∞ and π, respectively.Examples:
0
,1
,0.234
,i
,e
,pi

boolean
¶ Booleans represent either truth or falsity. The logical operations and, or and xor operate on and return booleans.
Examples:
true
,false

string
¶ Use strings to create nonmathematical text. Either
'
or"
can be used to delimit strings.You can escape a character by placing a single backslash character before it. The following escape codes have special behaviour:
\n
Newline \{
\{
\}
\}
If you want to write a string which contains a mixture of single and double quotes, you can delimit it with tripledoublequotes or triplesinglequotes, to save escaping too many characters.
Examples:
"hello there"
,'hello there'
,""" I said, "I'm Mike's friend" """

list
¶ An ordered list of elements of any data type.
Examples:
[0,1,2,3]
,[a,b,c]
,[true,false,true]

dict
¶ A ‘dictionary’a, mapping key strings to values of any data type.
A dictionary is created by enclosing one or more keyvalue pairs (a string followed by a colon and any JME expression) in square brackets, or with the
dict
function.Key strings are casesensitive.
Examples:
["a": 1, "b": 2]
["name": "Tess Tuser", "age": 106, "hobbies": ["reading","writing","arithmetic"] ]
dict("key1": 0.1, "key2": 1..3)
dict([["key1",1], ["key2",2]])
Warning
Because lists and dicts use similar syntax,
[]
produces an empty list, not an empty dictionary. To create an empty dictionary, usedict()
.

range
¶ A range
a..b#c
represents (roughly) the set of numbers \(\{a+nc \:  \: 0 \leq n \leq \frac{ba}{c} \}\). If the step size is zero, then the range is the continuous interval \([a,b]\).Examples:
1..3
,1..3#0.1
,1..3#0

set
¶ An unordered set of elements of any data type. The elements are pairwise distinct  if you create a set from a list with duplicate elements, the resulting set will not contain the duplicates.
Examples:
set(a,b,c)
,set([1,2,3,4])
,set(1..5)

vector
¶ The components of a vector must be numbers.
When combining vectors of different dimensions, the smaller vector is padded with zeroes to make up the difference.
Examples:
vector(1,2)
,vector([1,2,3,4])

matrix
¶ Matrices are constructed from lists of numbers, representing the rows.
When combining matrices of different dimensions, the smaller matrix is padded with zeroes to make up the difference.
Examples:
matrix([1,2,3],[4,5,6])
,matrix(row1,row2,row3)

html
¶ An HTML DOM node.
Examples:
html("<div>things</div>")
Function reference¶
Arithmetic¶

x+y
Addition. Numbers, vectors, matrices, lists, dicts, or strings can be added together.
list1+list2
concatenates the two lists, whilelist+value
returns a list with the righthandside value appended.dict1+dict2
merges the two dictionaries, with values from the righthand side taking precedence when the same key is present in both dictionaries.
 Examples:
1+2
→3
vector(1,2)+vector(3,4)
→vector(4,6)
matrix([1,2],[3,4])+matrix([5,6],[7,8])
→matrix([6,8],[10,12])
[1,2,3]+4
→[1,2,3,4]
[1,2,3]+[4,5,6]
→[1,2,3,4,5,6]
"hi "+"there"
→"hi there"

xy
Subtraction. Defined for numbers, vectors and matrices.
 Examples:
12
→1
vector(3,2)vector(1,4)
→vector(2,2)
matrix([5,6],[3,4])matrix([1,2],[7,8])
→matrix([4,4],[4,4])

x*y
Multiplication. Numbers, vectors and matrices can be multiplied together.
 Examples:
1*2
→2
2*vector(1,2,3)
→vector(2,4,6)
matrix([1,2],[3,4])*2
→matrix([2,4],[6,8])
matrix([1,2],[3,4])*vector(1,2)
→vector(5,11)

x/y
Division. Only defined for numbers.
Example:
3/4
→0.75
.

x^y
Exponentiation. Only defined for numbers.
 Examples:
3^2
→9
exp(3,2)
→9
e^(pi * i)
→1
Number operations¶

abs
(x)¶ 
len
(x)¶ 
length
(x)¶ Absolute value, or modulus. Defined for numbers, strings, ranges, vectors, lists and dictionaries. In the case of a list, returns the number of elements. For a range, returns the difference between the upper and lower bounds. For a dictionary, returns the number of keys.
 Examples:
abs(8)
→8
abs(34i)
→5
abs("Hello")
→5
abs([1,2,3])
→3
len([1,2,3])
→3
len(set([1,2,2]))
→2
length(vector(3,4))
→5
abs(vector(3,4,12))
→13
len(["a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 1])
→3

arg
(z)¶ Argument of a complex number.
Example:
arg(1)
→pi

re
(z)¶ Real part of a complex number.
Example:
re(1+2i)
→1

im
(z)¶ Imaginary part of a complex number.
Example:
im(1+2i)
→2

conj
(z)¶ Complex conjugate.
Example:
conj(1+i)
→1i

isint
(x)¶ Returns
true
ifx
is an integer.Example:
isint(4.0)
→true

root
(x, n)¶ n
^{th} root ofx
.Example:
root(8,3)
→2
.

ln
(x)¶ Natural logarithm.
Example:
ln(e)
→1

log
(x)¶ Logarithm with base 10.
Example:
log(100)
→2
.

log
(x, b) Logarithm with base
b
.Example:
log(8,2)
→3
.

degrees
(x)¶ Convert radians to degrees.
Examples:
degrees(pi/2)
→90

radians
(x)¶ Convert degrees to radians.
Examples:
radians(180)
→pi

sign
(x)¶ 
sgn
(x)¶ Sign of a number. Equivalent to \(\frac{x}{x}\), or 0 when
x
is 0. Examples:
sign(3)
→1
sign(3)
→1

max
(a, b)¶ Greatest of two numbers.
Example:
max(46,2)
→46

max
(list) Greatest of a list of numbers.
Example:
max([1,2,3])
→3

min
(a, b)¶ Least of two numbers.
Example:
min(3,2)
→2

min
(list) Least of a list of numbers.
Example:
min([1,2,3])
→1

precround
(n, d)¶ Round
n
tod
decimal places. On matrices and vectors, this rounds each element independently. Examples:
precround(pi,5)
→3.14159
precround(matrix([[0.123,4.56],[54,98.765]]),2)
→matrix([[0.12,4.56],[54,98.77]])
precround(vector(1/3,2/3),1)
→vector(0.3,0.7)

siground
(n, f)¶ Round
n
tof
significant figures. On matrices and vectors, this rounds each element independently. Examples:
siground(pi,3)
→3.14
siground(matrix([[0.123,4.56],[54,98.765]]),2)
→matrix([[0.12,4.6],[54,99]])
siground(vector(10/3,20/3),2)
→vector(3.3,6.7)

dpformat
(n, d[, style])¶ Round
n
tod
decimal places and return a string, padding with zeroes if necessary.If
style
is given, the number is rendered using the given notation style. See the page on Number notation for more on notation styles.Example:
dpformat(1.2,4)
→"1.2000"

sigformat
(n, d[, style])¶ Round
n
tod
significant figures and return a string, padding with zeroes if necessary.Example:
sigformat(4,3)
→"4.00"

formatnumber
(n, style)¶ Render the number
n
using the given number notation style.See the page on Number notation for more on notation styles.
Example:
formatnumber(1234.567,"fr")
→"1.234,567"

parsenumber
(string, style)¶ Parse a string representing a number written in the given style.
See the page on Number notation for more on notation styles.
Example:
parsenumber("1 234,567","sifr")
→1234.567
Trigonometry¶
Trigonometric functions all work in radians, and have as their domain the complex numbers.

sin
(x)¶ Sine.

cos
(x)¶ Cosine.

tan
(x)¶ Tangent: \(\tan(x) = \frac{\sin(x)}{\cos(x)}\)

cosec
(x)¶ Cosecant: \(\csc(x) = \frac{1}{sin(x)}\)

sec
(x)¶ Secant: \(\sec(x) = \frac{1}{cos(x)}\)

cot
(x)¶ Cotangent: \(\cot(x) = \frac{1}{\tan(x)}\)

arcsin
(x)¶ Inverse of
sin
. When \(x \in [1,1]\),arcsin(x)
returns a value in \([\frac{\pi}{2}, \frac{\pi}{2}]\).

arctan
(x)¶ Inverse of
tan
. When \(x\) is noncomplex,arctan(x)
returns a value in \([\frac{\pi}{2}, \frac{\pi}{2}]\).

sinh
(x)¶ Hyperbolic sine: \(\sinh(x) = \frac{1}{2} \left( \mathrm{e}^x  \mathrm{e}^{x} \right)\)

cosh
(x)¶ Hyperbolic cosine: \(\cosh(x) = \frac{1}{2} \left( \mathrm{e}^x + \mathrm{e}^{x} \right)\)

tanh
(x)¶ Hyperbolic tangent: \(tanh(x) = \frac{\sinh(x)}{\cosh(x)}\)

cosech
(x)¶ Hyperbolic cosecant: \(\operatorname{cosech}(x) = \frac{1}{\sinh(x)}\)

sech
(x)¶ Hyperbolic secant: \(\operatorname{sech}(x) = \frac{1}{\cosh(x)}\)

coth
(x)¶ Hyperbolic cotangent: \(\coth(x) = \frac{1}{\tanh(x)}\)
Number theory¶

x!
Factorial. When
x
is not an integer, \(\Gamma(x+1)\) is used instead. Examples:
fact(3)
→6
3!
→6
fact(5.5)
→287.885277815

factorise
(n)¶ Factorise
n
. Returns the exponents of the prime factorisation ofn
as a list. Examples
factorise(18)
→[1,2]
factorise(70)
→[1,0,1,1]

gamma
(x)¶ Gamma function.
 Examples:
gamma(3)
→2
gamma(1+i)
→0.4980156681  0.1549498283i

ceil
(x)¶ Round up to the nearest integer. When
x
is complex, each component is rounded separately. Examples:
ceil(3.2)
→4
ceil(1.3+5.4i)
→1+6i

floor
(x)¶ Round down to the nearest integer. When
x
is complex, each component is rounded separately.Example:
floor(3.5)
→3

trunc
(x)¶ If
x
is positive, round down to the nearest integer; if it is negative, round up to the nearest integer. Example:
trunc(3.3)
→3
trunc(3.3)
→3

fract
(x)¶ Fractional part of a number. Equivalent to
xtrunc(x)
.Example:
fract(4.3)
→0.3

rational_approximation
(n[, accuracy])¶ Compute a rational approximation to the given number by computing terms of its continued fraction, returning the numerator and denominator separately. The approximation will be within \(e^{\text{accuracy}}\) of the true value; the default value for
accuracy
is 15. Examples:
rational_approximation(pi)
→[355,113]
rational_approximation(pi,3)
→[22,7]

mod
(a, b)¶ Modulo; remainder after integral division, i.e. \(a \bmod b\).
Example:
mod(5,3)
→2

perm
(n, k)¶ Count permutations, i.e. \(^n \kern2pt P_k = \frac{n!}{(nk)!}\).
Example:
perm(5,2)
→20

comb
(n, k)¶ Count combinations, i.e. \(^n \kern2pt C_k = \frac{n!}{k!(nk)!}\).
Example:
comb(5,2)
→10
.

gcd
(a, b)¶ 
gcf
(a, b)¶ Greatest common divisor of integers
a
andb
. Can also writegcf(a,b)
.Example:
gcd(12,16)
→4

lcm
(a, b)¶ Lowest common multiple of integers
a
andb
. Can be used with any number of arguments; it returns the lowest common multiple of all the arguments. Examples
lcm(8,12)
→24
lcm(8,12,5)
→120

xy
x
dividesy
.Example:
48
→true
Vector arithmetic¶

vector
(a1, a2, ..., aN) Create a vector with given components. Alternately, you can create a vector from a single list of numbers.
 Examples:
vector(1,2,3)
vector([1,2,3])

matrix
(row1, row2, ..., rowN) Create a matrix with given rows, which should be lists of numbers. Or, you can pass in a single list of lists of numbers.
 Examples:
matrix([1,2],[3,4])
matrix([[1,2],[3,4]])

rowvector
(a1, a2, ..., aN)¶ Create a row vector (\(1 \times n\) matrix) with the given components. Alternately, you can create a row vector from a single list of numbers.
 Examples:
rowvector(1,2)
→matrix([1,2])
rowvector([1,2])
→matrix([1,2])

dot
(x, y)¶ Dot (scalar) product. Inputs can be vectors or column matrices.
Examples:
dot(vector(1,2,3),vector(4,5,6))
,dot(matrix([1],[2]), matrix([3],[4])
.

cross
(x, y)¶ Cross product. Inputs can be vectors or column matrices.
Examples:
cross(vector(1,2,3),vector(4,5,6))
,cross(matrix([1],[2]), matrix([3],[4])
.

angle
(a, b)¶ Angle between vectors
a
andb
, in radians. Returns0
if eithera
orb
has length 0.Example:
angle(vector(1,0),vector(0,1))

det
(x)¶ Determinant of a matrix. Only defined for up to 3x3 matrices.
Examples:
det(matrix([1,2],[3,4]))
,det(matrix([1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9]))
.

transpose
(x)¶ Matrix transpose. Can also take a vector, in which case it returns a singlerow matrix.
Examples:
transpose(matrix([1,2],[3,4]))
,transpose(vector(1,2,3))
.

id
(n)¶ Identity matrix with \(n\) rows and columns.
Example:
id(3)
.
Strings¶

x[n]
Get the Nth character of the string
x
. Indices start at 0.Example:
"hello"[1]
→"e"

x[a..b]
Slice the string
x
 get the substring between the given indices. Note that indices start at 0, and the final index is not included.Example:
"hello"[1..4]
→"ell"

substring in string
Test if
substring
occurs anywhere instring
. This is casesensitive.Example:
"plain" in "explains"
→true

latex
(x)¶ Mark string
x
as containing raw LaTeX, so when it’s included in a mathmode environment it doesn’t get wrapped in a\textrm
environment.Note that backslashes must be double up, because the backslash is an escape character in JME strings.
Example:
latex('\\frac{1}{2}')
.

safe
(x)¶ Mark string
x
as safe: don’t substitute variable values into it when this expression is evaluated.Use this function to preserve curly braces in string literals.
Example:
safe('From { to }')

capitalise
(x)¶ Capitalise the first letter of a string.
Example:
capitalise('hello there')
.

pluralise
(n, singular, plural)¶ Return
singular
ifn
is 1, otherwise returnplural
.Example:
pluralise(num_things,"thing","things")

upper
(x)¶ Convert string to uppercase.
Example:
upper('Hello there')
.

lower
(x)¶ Convert string to lowercase.
Example:
lower('CLAUS, Santa')
.

join
(strings, delimiter)¶ Join a list of strings with the given delimiter.
Example:
join(['a','b','c'],',')
→'a,b,c'

split
(string, delimiter)¶ Split a string at every occurrence of
delimiter
, returning a list of the the remaining pieces.Example:
split("a,b,c,d",",")
→["a","b","c","d"]

currency
(n, prefix, suffix)¶ Write a currency amount, with the given prefix or suffix characters.
Example:
currency(123.321,"£","")
→'£123.32'

separateThousands
(n, separator)¶ Write a number, with the given separator character between every 3 digits
To write a number using notation appropriate to a particular culture or context, see
formatnumber
.Example:
separateThousands(1234567.1234,",")
→'1,234,567.1234'
Logic¶

x<y
Returns
true
ifx
is less thany
. Defined only for numbers.Examples:
4<5
.

x>y
Returns
true
ifx
is greater thany
. Defined only for numbers.Examples:
5>4
.

x<=y
Returns
true
ifx
is less than or equal toy
. Defined only for numbers.Examples:
4<=4
.

x>=y
Returns
true
ifx
is greater than or equal toy
. Defined only for numbers.Examples:
4>=4
.

x<>y
Returns
true
ifx
is not equal toy
. Defined for any data type. Returnstrue
ifx
andy
are not of the same data type.Examples:
'this string' <> 'that string'
,1<>2
,'1' <> 1
.

x=y
Returns
true
ifx
is equal toy
. Defined for any data type. Returnsfalse
ifx
andy
are not of the same data type.Examples:
vector(1,2)=vector(1,2,0)
,4.0=4
.

x and y
Logical AND. Returns
true
if bothx
andy
are true, otherwise returns false.Examples:
true and true
,true && true
,true & true
.

not x
Logical NOT.
Examples:
not true
,!true
.

x or y
Logical OR. Returns
true
when at least one ofx
andy
is true. Returns false when bothx
andy
are false.Examples:
true or false
,true  false
.

x xor y
Logical XOR. Returns
true
when at eitherx
ory
is true but not both. Returns false whenx
andy
are the same expression.Example:
true XOR false
.

x implies y
Logical implication. If
x
is true andy
is false, then the implication is false. Otherwise, the implication is true.Example:
false implies true
.
Ranges¶

a..
b
()¶ Define a range. Includes all integers between and including
a
andb
.Examples:
1..5
,6..6
.

a..b#s
Set the step size for a range. Default is 1. When
s
is 0, the range includes all real numbers between the limits.Examples:
0..1 # 0.1
,2..10 # 2
,0..1#0
.

a except b
Exclude a number, range, or list of items from a list or range.
Examples:
9..9 except 0
,9..9 except [1,1]
.3..8 except 4..6
,[1,2,3,4,5] except [2,3]
.

list
(range) Convert a range to a list of its elements.
Example:
list(2..2)
→[2,1,0,1,2]
Lists¶

x[n]
Get the
n
^{th} element of list, vector or matrixx
. For matrices, then
^{th} row is returned. Example:
[0,1,2,3][1]
→1
vector(0,1,2)[2]
→2
matrix([0,1,2],[3,4,5],[6,7,8])[0]
→matrix([0,1,2])

x[a..b]
Slice list
x
 return elements with indices in the given range. Note that list indices start at 0, and the final index is not included.Example:
[0,1,2,3,4,5][1..3]
→[1,2]

x in collection
Is element
x
in the list, set or rangecollection
?If
collection
is a dictionary, returnstrue
if the dictionary has a keyx
. Examples:
3 in [1,2,3,4]
→true
3 in (set(1,2,3,4) and set(2,4,6,8))
→false
"a" in ["a": 1]
→true
1 in ["a": 1]
throws an error because dictionary keys must be strings.

repeat
(expression, n)¶ Evaluate
expression
n
times, and return the results in a list.Example:
repeat(random(1..4),5)
→[2, 4, 1, 3, 4]

map
(expression,name[s],d)¶ Evaluate
expression
for each item in list, range, vector or matrixd
, replacing variablename
with the element fromd
each time.You can also give a list of names if each element of
d
is a list of values. The Nth element of the list will be mapped to the Nth name.Note
Do not use
i
ore
as the variable name to map over  they’re already defined as mathematical constants! Examples:
map(x+1,x,1..3)
→[2,3,4]
map(capitalise(s),s,["jim","bob"])
→["Jim","Bob"]
map(sqrt(x^2+y^2),[x,y],[ [3,4], [5,12] ])
→[5,13]
map(x+1,x,id(2))
→matrix([[2,1],[1,2]])
map(sqrt(x),x,vector(1,4,9))
→vector(1,2,3)

filter
(expression, name, d)¶ Filter each item in list or range
d
, replacing variablename
with the element fromd
each time, returning only the elements for whichexpression
evaluates totrue
.Note
Do not use
i
ore
as the variable name to map over  they’re already defined as mathematical constants!Example:
filter(x>5,x,[1,3,5,7,9])
→[7,9]

let
(name, definition, ..., expression)¶ 
let
(definitions, expression) Evaluate
expression
, temporarily defining variables with the given names. Use this to cut down on repetition. You can define any number of variables  in the first calling pattern, follow a variable name with its definition. Or you can give a dictionary mapping variable names to their values. The last argument is the expression to be evaluated. Examples:
let(d,sqrt(b^24*a*ac), [(b+d)/2, (bd)/2])
→[2,3]
(when[a,b,c]
=[1,5,6]
)let(x,1, y,2, x+y)
→3
let(["x": 1, "y": 2], x+y)
→3

sort
(x)¶ Sort list
x
.Example:
sort([4,2,1,3])
→[1,2,3,4]

reverse
(x)¶ Reverse list
x
.Example:
reverse([1,2,3])
→[3,2,1]

indices
(list, value)¶ Find the indices at which
value
occurs inlist
. Examples:
indices([1,0,1,0],1)
→[0,2]
indices([2,4,6],4)
→[1]
indices([1,2,3],5)
→[]

distinct
(x)¶ Return a copy of the list
x
with duplicates removed.Example:
distinct([1,2,3,1,4,3])
→[1,2,3,4]

list
(x) Convert set, vector or matrix
x
to a list of components (or rows, for a matrix). Examples:
list(set(1,2,3))
→[1,2,3]
(note that you can’t depend on the elements of sets being in any order)list(vector(1,2))
→[1,2]
list(matrix([1,2],[3,4]))
→[[1,2], [3,4]]

satisfy
(names, definitions, conditions, maxRuns)¶ Each variable name in
names
should have a corresponding definition expression indefinitions
.conditions
is a list of expressions which you want to evaluate totrue
. The definitions will be evaluated repeatedly until all the conditions are satisfied, or the number of attempts is greater thanmaxRuns
. IfmaxRuns
isn’t given, it defaults to 100 attempts.Example:
satisfy([a,b,c],[random(1..10),random(1..10),random(1..10)],[b^24*a*c>0])

sum
(numbers)¶ Add up a list of numbers
Example:
sum([1,2,3])
→6

product
(list1, list2, ..., listN)¶ Cartesian product of lists. In other words, every possible combination of choices of one value from each given list.
Example:
product([1,2],[a,b])
→[ [1,a], [1,b], [2,a], [2,b] ]

zip
(list1, list2, ..., listN)¶ Combine two (or more) lists into one  the Nth element of the output is a list containing the Nth elements of each of the input lists.
Example:
zip([1,2,3],[4,5,6])
→[ [1,4], [2,5], [3,6] ]

combinations
(collection, r)¶ All ordered choices of
r
elements fromcollection
, without replacement.Example:
combinations([1,2,3],2)
→[ [1,2], [1,3], [2,3] ]

combinations_with_replacement
(collection, r)¶ All ordered choices of
r
elements fromcollection
, with replacement.Example:
combinations([1,2,3],2)
→[ [1,1], [1,2], [1,3], [2,2], [2,3], [3,3] ]

permutations
(collection, r)¶ All choices of
r
elements fromcollection
, in any order, without replacement.Example:
permutations([1,2,3],2)
→[ [1,2], [1,3], [2,1], [2,3], [3,1], [3,2] ]
Dictionaries¶

dict[key]
Get the value corresponding to the given key string in the dictionary
d
.If the key is not present in the dictionary, an error will be thrown.
Example:
["a": 1, "b": 2]["a"]
→1

get
(dict, key, default)¶ Get the value corresponding to the given key string in the dictionary.
If the key is not present in the dictionary, the
default
value will be returned. Examples:
get(["a":1], "a", 0)
→1
get(["a":1], "b", 0)
→0

dict
(keys) Create a dictionary with the given keyvalue pairs. Equivalent to
[ .. ]
, except when no keyvalue pairs are given:[]
creates an empty list instead. Examples:
dict()
dict("a": 1, "b": 2)

keys
(dict)¶ A list of all of the given dictionary’s keys.
Example:
keys(["a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 1])
→["a","b","c"]

values
(dict)¶ 
values
(dict, keys) A list of the values corresponding to each of the given dictionary’s keys.
If a list of keys is given, the values corresponding to those keys are returned, in the same order.
 Examples:
values(["a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 1])
→[1,2,1]
values(["a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3], ["b","a"])
→[2,1]

items
(dict)¶ A list of all of the
[key,value]
pairs in the given dictionary.Example:
values(["a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 1])
→[ ["a",1], ["b",2], ["c",1] ]
Sets¶

set
(a,b,c,...) or set([elements]) Create a set with the given elements. Either pass the elements as individual arguments, or as a list.
Examples:
set(1,2,3)
,set([1,2,3])

union
(a, b)¶ Union of sets
a
andb
 Examples:
union(set(1,2,3),set(2,4,6))
→set(1,2,3,4,6)
set(1,2,3) or set(2,4,6)
→set(1,2,3,4,6)

intersection
(a, b)¶ Intersection of sets
a
andb
, i.e. elements which are in both sets Examples:
intersection(set(1,2,3),set(2,4,6))
→set(2)
set(1,2,3) and set(2,4,6)
→set(2)

ab
Set minus  elements which are in a but not b
Example:
set(1,2,3,4)  set(2,4,6)
→set(1,3)
Randomisation¶

random
(x)¶ Pick uniformly at random from a range, list, or from the given arguments.
 Examples:
random(1..5)
random([1,2,4])
random(1,2,3)

deal
(n)¶ Get a random shuffling of the integers \([0 \dots n1]\)
Example:
deal(3)
→[2,0,1]

shuffle
(x) or shuffle(a..b)¶ Random shuffling of list or range.
 Examples:
shuffle(["a","b","c"])
→["c","b","a"]
shuffle(0..4)
→[2,3,0,4,1]
Control flow¶

award
(a, b)¶ Return
a
ifb
istrue
, else return0
.Example:
award(5,true)
→5

if
(p, a, b)¶ If
p
istrue
, returna
, else returnb
. Only the returned value is evaluated.Example:
if(false,1,0)
→0

switch
(p1, a1, p2, a2, ..., pn, an, d)¶ Select cases. Alternating boolean expressions with values to return, with the final argument representing the default case. Only the returned value is evaluated.
 Examples:
switch(true,1,false,0,3)
→1
switch(false,1,true,0,3)
→0
switch(false,1,false,0,3)
→3
HTML¶

html
(x) Parse string
x
as HTML.Examples:
html('<div>Text!</div>')
.

table
(data), table(data, headers)¶ Create an HTML with cell contents defined by
data
, which should be a list of lists of data, and column headers defined by the list of stringsheaders
. Examples:
table([[0,1],[1,0]], ["Column A","Column B"])
table([[0,1],[1,0]])

image
(url)¶ Create an HTML img element loading the image from the given URL. Images uploaded through the resources tab are stored in the relative URL resources/images/<filename>.png, where <filename> is the name of the original file.
 Examples:
image('resources/images/picture.png')
image(chosenimage)
 Question using randomly chosen images.
JSON¶
JSON is a lightweight datainterchange format. Many public data sets come in JSON format; it’s a good way of encoding data in a way that is easy for both humans and computers to read and write.
For an example of how you can use JSON data in a Numbas question, see the exam Working with JSON data.

json_decode
(json)¶ Decode a JSON string into JME data types.
JSON is decoded into numbers, strings, booleans, lists, or dictionaries. To produce other data types, such as matrices or vectors, you will have to postprocess the resulting data.
Warning
The JSON value
null
is silently converted to an empty string, because JME has no “null” data type. This may change in the future.Example:
json_decode(' {"a": 1, "b": [2,true,"thing"]} ')
→["a": 1, "b": [2,true,"thing"]]

json_encode
(data)¶ Convert the given object to a JSON string.
Numbers, strings, booleans, lists, and dictionaries are converted in a straightforward manner. Other data types may behave unexpectedly.
Example:
json_encode([1,"a",true])
→'[1,"a",true]'